The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theatre, and films. According to the 2011 census, the population of Mumbai city was 12,479,608. They are also known to come from other countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. A colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya – a blend of Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Konkani, Urdu, Indian English and some invented words – is spoken on the streets.  Some of the oldest edifices in the city built during this period are the Jogeshwari Caves (between 520 and 525), Elephanta Caves (between the sixth to seventh century), Walkeshwar Temple (10th century), and Banganga Tank (12th century). Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs. There are 31 buildings taller than 100 m, compared with 200 in Shanghai, 500 in Hong Kong and 500 in New York..  The Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA) was established on 26 January 1975 by the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Bombay metropolitan region.  The city also hosts the Marathi film industry which has seen increased popularity in recent years, and TV production companies. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November.  Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes, of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste, is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and to the Deonar dumping ground in the east. , The Samyukta Maharashtra movement to create a separate Maharashtra state including Bombay was at its height in the 1950s. , About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages, per day in Mumbai. Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban district, which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra. 'Brihan' comes from the Sanskrit word "brihat" which essentially means "big/major". The living space is 4.5 square metres per person.  After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay.  It handled 36.6 million passengers and 694,300 tonnes of cargo during FY 2014–2015. , Mumbai had about 721,000 private vehicles as of March 2014, 56,459 black and yellow taxis as of 2005[update], and 106,000 auto rickshaws, as of May 2013. The winters are harsh there, and apart from the warmth, the shallow waters at the mudflats at various spots in the Greater Mumbai area provide them with the algae, fish and other food … This is in addition to existing trains to Churchgate on the Western Line.  The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the 24 municipal wards, five nominated Councillors having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, and a mayor whose role is mostly ceremonial.  Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world, and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities. The Portuguese Franciscans and Jesuits built several churches in the city, prominent being the St. Michael's Church at Mahim (1534), St. John the Baptist Church at Andheri (1579), St. Andrew's Church at Bandra (1580), and Gloria Church at Byculla (1632).  The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from the Thane creek on the ", "51st REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA", "Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya", "Sahitya Akademi: awards and fellowships", "Bandra's spirit captured in cakes, tattoos", "MTDC will not pull out of Elephanta, Banganga fests", "The Times of India turns the Times of Colour", "IRS Q2, 2010: Negligible decline of daily readers in Greater Mumbai", "IRS Q2 2010: Publications in Maharashtra see some light", "Public life and voluntary social service organisations", "Bollywood Trawls London for Talent as Students Balk at Banking", "Bollywood filmmakers experimenting with new genre of films", "Mumbai's Film City may be home to world cinema", "Education board tells schools to get state recognition", "mumbai university: Latest News, Videos and mumbai university Photos | Times of India", "Are you cut out for Arts, Science or Commerce?  The Delhi Sultanate annexed the islands in 1347–48 and controlled it until 1407.  Bombay Durpan, the first Marathi newspaper, was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832. Its inhabitants include diverse ethnic groups, such as Gujaratis, Marwaris, Sindhis, and people from other Indian states, as well as religious minorities, such as Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, and Ja… The Mumbai Metropolitan Region extends over an area of 4355 sq. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy.  Uran. Its strongest scores in the QS University Rankings: BRICS are for papers per faculty (8th), employer reputation (20th) and citations per paper (28th). The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence. ... Navi Mumbai. Mumbai had also played host to the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open, an International Series tournament of the ATP World Tour, in 2006 and 2007. , Mumbai is the headquarters of two zones of the Indian Railways: the Central Railway (CR) headquartered at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), and the Western Railway (WR) headquartered at Churchgate. , Mumbai is home to two prominent research institutions: the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).  Mumbai Metropolitan Region was home to 20,748,395 people by 2011.  In the Indian Super League, Mumbai City FC represents the city; The major beaches in Mumbai are Girgaum Chowpatty, Juhu Beach, Dadar Chowpatty, Gorai Beach, Marve Beach, Versova Beach, Madh Beach, Aksa Beach, and Manori Beach.  The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway from Sion to Thane, the Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to Panvel and the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Dahisar.  During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. It was ranked 41 among the Top 50 Engineering Schools of the world by America's news broadcasting firm Business Insider in 2012 and was the only university in the list from the five emerging BRICS nations viz Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.  The States Reorganisation Committee recommended a bilingual state for Maharashtra–Gujarat with Bombay as its capital in its 1955 report.  Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, and the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings.  The Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) and Thane Municipal Transport (TMT) also operate their buses in Mumbai, connecting various nodes of Navi Mumbai and Thane to parts of Mumbai. , The years from 1990 to 2010 saw an increase in violence and terrorism activities. The total surface area that the city of Mumbai covers comes to 603 kilometers squared (233 square miles) in the megacity itself. The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes.  Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including Larsen & Toubro, State Bank of India (SBI), Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance), and five of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai.  In August 1979, a sister township of New Bombay was founded by the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) across the Thane and Raigad districts to help the dispersal and control of Bombay's population. , Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. , In accordance with the Royal Charter of 27 March 1668, England leased these islands to the English East India Company in 1668 for a sum of £10 per annum. Mumbai has two international cricket grounds, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season.  Mumbai also has two lower courts, the small causes court for civil matters, and the sessions court for criminal cases. Football is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World Cup and the English Premier League being followed widely. , In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies.  In 2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to several heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels. In the 2017 Premier Badminton League (also known as Vodafone PBL 2017 for sponsorship reasons) the Mumbai Rockets beat the Hyderabad Hunters 3–1 to proceed to the final. , Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), Boon Bay (1690), and Bon Bahia. Containment Zones in Mumbai On March 31, 2020, the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) declared 141 Containment Zones in the … The number of slum-dwellers is estimated to be 9 million, up from 6 million in 2001; that is, 62% of all Mumbaikars live in informal slums. , The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are sometimes still used. When the Elite Football League of India was introduced in August 2011, Mumbai was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season. Mumbai (English: /mʊmˈbaɪ/, Marathi: [ˈmumbəi]; also known as Bombay /bɒmˈbeɪ/, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.  Their architectural features include a variety of European influences such as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional Indian features. With the Treaty of Surat (1775), the British formally gained control of Salsette and Bassein, resulting in the First Anglo-Maratha War. Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Greater Mumbai, a densely populated urban metropolis on the west coast of India, occupies an area of 603.0 sq .kms and is the smallest administrative district in Maharashtra state. , Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Mumbai through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider.  Sewage treatment is carried out at Worli and Bandra, and disposed of by two independent marine outfalls of 3.4 km (2.1 mi) and 3.7 km (2.3 mi) at Bandra and Worli respectively.  Towards the end of the 17th century, the islands again suffered incursions from Yakut Khan in 1689–90. It scored 3.5 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.. Mcdowell's Derby is also held in February at the Turf Club in Mumbai. , Between the 2nd century BCE and 9th century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Satraps, Abhira, Vakataka, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas, before being ruled by the Shilaharas from 810 to 1260. The MCGM supplies potable water to the city from six lakes, most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. , It is administered by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) (sometimes referred to as the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation), formerly known as the Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC). , The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Bombay), Institute of Chemical Technology (formerly UDCT / UICT), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), which are India's premier engineering and technology schools, along with SNDT Women's University are the autonomous universities located in Mumbai. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution. The black and yellow Premier Padmini Taxis are iconic of Mumbai.  The three coordinated bomb explosions in July 2011 that occurred at the Opera house, Zaveri Bazaar and Dadar were the latest in the series of terrorist attacks in Mumbai which resulted in 26 deaths and 130 injuries. 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